Genetics Home Reference:

MedlinePlus: Cleft Lip and Palate:

MedlinePlus: Facial Injuries and Disorders:


Children's Hospital Boston: Newborns: Skull Anatomy:

Cleft Palate Foundation (CPF): About Cleft Lip & Palate: Cleft Lip:

Cleft Palate Foundation (CPF): About Cleft Lip & Palate: Cleft Palate:

Medem: Medical Library: American Medical Association: Atlas of the Body: The Skull:

* Anatomy -- For Doctors

eMedicine: Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery: Anatomy: Facial Bone Anatomy:

Gray, Henry (1821-1865). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918. Part II: Osteology. Chapter 5: The Skull.

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Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center (Seattle, Washington): Craniofacial Center: Craniofacial Glossary:

Genetics Home Reference: Glossary:

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS): Browse all Disorders (includes synonyms and research topics):

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS): Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures:

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* Statistics - Most Recommended

March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center: PeriStats:

FASTATS: Birth Defects/Congenital Anomalies:

* Statistics - Selected

International Birth Defects Information Systems: Birth Defects - Malformations - Surveillance:

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM): Birth Defect Statistics:

University of Kansas Medical Center: Genetics Education Center: Prevalence of Genetic Conditions / Birth Defects:

* Statistics -- MMWR

Chavez, Gilberto F.; Cordero, Jose F.; Becerra, Jose E. Leading Major Congenital Malformations Among Minority Groups in the United States, 1981-1986. MMWR July 01, 1988 / 37(SS-3);17-24.

Current Trends Contribution of Birth Defects to Infant Mortality -- United States, 1986. MMWR September 22, 1989 / 38(37);633-635.

Economic Costs of Birth Defects and Cerebral Palsy -- United States, 1992. MMWR September 22, 1995 / 44(37);694-9.

Edmonds, Larry D.; James, Levy M. Temporal Trends in the Prevalence of Congenital Malformations at Birth Based on the Birth Defects Monitoring Program, United States, 1979-1987. MMWR December 01, 1990 / 39(SS-4);19-23.

Improved National Prevalence Estimates for 18 Selected Major Birth Defects --- United States, 1999--2001. MMWR January 6, 2006 / 54(51&52);1301-1305:

Surveillance for and Comparison of Birth Defect Prevalences in Two Geographic Areas -- United States, 1983-88. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Surveillance Summaries, March 19, 1993. MMWR 1993;42:(No. SS-1)