McCauley Lab's research interests:
William K. and Mary Anne Najjar Professor
Dean, U-M School of Dentistry
Laurie K. McCauley is the William K. and Mary Anne Najjar Professor and Dean of the School of Dentistry, and Professor in the Department of Pathology at the Medical School at the University of Michigan. Dr. McCauley earned her B.S., D.D.S., M.S. and Ph.D. (Veterinary Pathobiology) all from The Ohio State University. She has had several visiting scientist/professor appointments including the Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, and the Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
Dr. McCauley is a diplomate of the American Board of Periodontology, a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a former council member of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), former Associate Editor of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (JBMR), a Fellow in the American College of Dentists and the International College of Dentists, and also served on the National Institutes of Health, National Advisory Dental & Craniofacial Research Council. For more than twenty years, Dr. McCauley has led an active research program in hormonal controls of bone remodeling, parathyroid hormone anabolic actions in bone, and prostate cancer skeletal metastasis. Among her many recognitions are the inaugural Paula Stern Achievement award from the ASBMR, a distinguished scientist award from the International Association for Dental Research, The Ohio State College of Dentistry Distinguished Alumnus award, and membership in the National Academy of Medicine.
Laurie K. McCauley (Editor), Martha J. Somerman (Editor)
June 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
The most recent 20 publications are reported below via PubMed search.
To see all PubMed results go to this complete listing of publications by Dr. McCauley.
Modulation of Osteoblastic Cell Efferocytosis by Bone Marrow Macrophages.
J Cell Biochem. 2016 Apr 7;
Authors: Michalski MN, Koh AJ, Weidner S, Roca H, McCauley LK
Apoptosis occurs at an extraordinary rate in the human body and the effective clearance of dead cells (efferocytosis) is necessary to maintain homeostasis and promote healing, yet the contribution and impact of this process in bone is unclear. Bone formation requires that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differentiate into osteoblasts which direct matrix formation and either become osteocytes, bone lining cells, or undergo apoptosis. A series of experiments were performed to identify the regulators and consequences of macrophage efferocytosis of apoptotic BMSCs (apBMSCs). Bone marrow derived macrophages treated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) exhibited increased efferocytosis of apBMSCs compared to vehicle treated macrophages. Additionally, IL-10 increased anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages (CD206(+) ), and further enhanced efferocytosis within the CD206(+) population. Stattic, an inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation, reduced the IL-10-mediated shift in M2 macrophage polarization and diminished IL-10-directed efferocytosis of apBMSCs by macrophages implicating the STAT3 signaling pathway. Cell culture supernatants and RNA from macrophages co-cultured with apoptotic bone cells showed increased secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and increased ccl2 gene expression. In conclusion, IL-10 increases M2 macrophage polarization and enhances macrophage-mediated engulfment of apBMSCs in a STAT3 phosphorylation-dependent manner. After engulfment of apoptotic bone cells, macrophages secrete TGF-β1 and MCP-1/CCL2 both factors that fuel the remodeling process. A better understanding of the role of macrophage efferocytosis as it relates to normal and abnormal bone turnover will provide vital information for future therapeutic approaches to treat bone related diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 27061191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Calcium Sensing Receptor Function Supports Osteoblast Survival and Acts as a Co-Factor in PTH Anabolic Actions in Bone.
J Cell Biochem. 2015 Nov 18;
Authors: Al-Dujaili SA, Koh AJ, Dang M, Mi X, Chang W, Ma PX, McCauley LK
Anabolic actions of PTH in bone involve increased deposition of mineralizing matrix. Regulatory feedback of the process may be important to maintain calcium homeostasis and, in turn, calcium may inform the process. This investigation clarified the role of calcium availability and the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the anabolic actions of PTH. CaSR function promoted osteoblastic cell numbers, with lower cell numbers in post-confluent cultures of primary calvarial cells from Col1-CaSR knock-out (KO) mice, and for calvarial cells from wild-type (WT) mice treated with a calcilytic. Increased apoptosis of calvarial cells with calcilytic treatment suggested CaSR is critical for protection against stage-dependent cell death. Whole and cortical, but not trabecular, bone parameters were significantly lower in Col1-CaSR KO mice versus WT littermates. Intact Col1-CaSR KO mice had lower serum P1NP levels relative to WT. PTH treatment displayed anabolic actions in WT and, to a lesser degree, KO mice, and rescued the lower P1NP levels in KO mice. Furthermore, PTH effects on whole tibiae were inhibited by osteoblast-specific CaSR ablation. Vertebral body implants (vossicles) from untreated Col1-CaSR KO and WT mice had similar bone volumes after 4 weeks of implantation in athymic mice. These findings suggest that trabecular bone formation can occur independently of the CaSR, and that the CaSR plays a collaborative role in the PTH anabolic effects on bone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 26579618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Juxtacrine interaction of macrophages and bone marrow stromal cells induce interleukin-6 signals and promote cell migration.
Bone Res. 2015;3:15014
Authors: Chang J, Koh AJ, Roca H, McCauley LK
The bone marrow contains a heterogeneous milieu of cells, including macrophages, which are key cellular mediators for resolving infection and inflammation. Macrophages are most well known for their ability to phagocytose foreign bodies or apoptotic cells to maintain homeostasis; however, little is known about their function in the bone microenvironment. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interaction of murine macrophages and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), with focus on the juxtacrine induction of IL-6 signaling and the resultant effect on BMSC migration and growth. The juxtacrine interaction of primary mouse macrophages and BMSCs activated IL-6 signaling in the co-cultures, which subsequently enhanced BMSC migration and increased BMSC numbers. BMSCs and macrophages harvested from IL-6 knockout mice revealed that IL-6 signaling was essential for enhancement of BMSC migration and increased BMSC numbers via juxtacrine interactions. BMSCs were the main contributor of IL-6 signaling, and hence activation of the IL-6/gp130/STAT3 pathway. Meanwhile, macrophage derived IL-6 remained important for the overall production of IL-6 protein in the co-cultures. Taken together, these findings show the function of macrophages as co-inducers of migration and growth of BMSCs, which could directly influence bone formation and turnover.
PMID: 26558138 [PubMed]
Macrophages: Their Emerging Roles in Bone.
J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Dec;30(12):2140-9
Authors: Sinder BP, Pettit AR, McCauley LK
Macrophages are present in nearly all tissues and are critical for development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Resident tissue macrophages of bone, termed osteal macrophages, are recently classified myeloid cells that are distinct from osteoclasts. Osteal macrophages are located immediately adjacent to osteoblasts, regulate bone formation, and play diverse roles in skeletal homeostasis. Genetic or pharmacological modulation of macrophages in vivo results in significant bone phenotypes, and these phenotypes depend on which macrophage subsets are altered. Macrophages are also key mediators of osseous wound healing and fracture repair, with distinct roles at various stages of the repair process. A central function of macrophages is their phagocytic ability. Each day, billions of cells die in the body and efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) is a critical process in both clearing dead cells and recruitment of replacement progenitor cells to maintain homeostasis. Recent data suggest a role for efferocytosis in bone biology and these new mechanisms are outlined. Finally, although macrophages have an established role in primary tumors, emerging evidence suggests that macrophages in bone support cancers which preferentially metastasize to the skeleton. Collectively, this developing area of osteoimmunology raises new questions and promises to provide novel insights into pathophysiologic conditions as well as therapeutic and regenerative approaches vital for skeletal health. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
PMID: 26531055 [PubMed - in process]
Bone marrow macrophages support prostate cancer growth in bone.
Oncotarget. 2015 Nov 3;6(34):35782-96
Authors: Soki FN, Cho SW, Kim YW, Jones JD, Park SI, Koh AJ, Entezami P, Daignault-Newton S, Pienta KJ, Roca H, McCauley LK
Resident macrophages in bone play important roles in bone remodeling, repair, and hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, yet their role in skeletal metastasis remains under investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of macrophages in prostate cancer skeletal metastasis, using two in vivo mouse models of conditional macrophage depletion. RM-1 syngeneic tumor growth was analyzed in an inducible macrophage (CSF-1 receptor positive cells) ablation model (MAFIA mice). There was a significant reduction in tumor growth in the tibiae of macrophage-ablated mice, compared with control non-ablated mice. Similar results were observed when macrophage ablation was performed using liposome-encapsulated clodronate and human PC-3 prostate cancer cells where tumor-bearing long bones had increased numbers of tumor associated-macrophages. Although tumors were consistently smaller in macrophage-depleted mice, paradoxical results of macrophage depletion on bone were observed. Histomorphometric and micro-CT analyses demonstrated that clodronate-treated mice had increased bone volume, while MAFIA mice had reduced bone volume. These results suggest that the effect of macrophage depletion on tumor growth was independent of its effect on bone responses and that macrophages in bone may be more important to tumor growth than the bone itself. In conclusion, resident macrophages play a pivotal role in prostate cancer growth in bone.
PMID: 26459393 [PubMed - in process]
PTH and Vitamin D Repress DMP1 in Cementoblasts.
J Dent Res. 2015 Oct;94(10):1408-16
Authors: Wang L, Tran AB, Nociti FH, Thumbigere-Math V, Foster BL, Krieger CC, Kantovitz KR, Novince CM, Koh AJ, McCauley LK, Somerman MJ
A complex feedback mechanism between parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) maintains mineral homeostasis, in part by regulating calcium and phosphate absorption/reabsorption. Previously, we showed that 1,25D regulates mineral homeostasis by repressing dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) via the vitamin D receptor pathway. Similar to 1,25D, PTH may modulate DMP1, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Immortalized murine cementoblasts (OCCM.30), similar to osteoblasts and known to express DMP1, were treated with PTH (1-34). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot revealed that PTH decreased DMP1 gene transcription (85%) and protein expression (30%), respectively. PTH mediated the downregulation of DMP1 via the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the decreased localization of DMP1 in vivo in cellular cementum and alveolar bone of mice treated with a single dose (50 µg/kg) of PTH (1-34). RNA-seq was employed to further identify patterns of gene expression shared by PTH and 1,25D in regulating DMP1, as well as other factors involved in mineral homeostasis. PTH and 1,25D mutually upregulated 36 genes and mutually downregulated 27 genes by ≥2-fold expression (P ≤ 0.05). Many identified genes were linked with the regulation of bone/tooth homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, calcium signaling, and DMP1 transcription. Validation of RNA-seq results via PCR array confirmed a similar gene expression pattern in response to PTH and 1,25D treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that PTH and 1,25D share complementary effects in maintaining mineral homeostasis by mutual regulation of genes/proteins associated with calcium and phosphate metabolism while also exerting distinct roles on factors modulating mineral metabolism. Furthermore, PTH may modulate phosphate homeostasis by downregulating DMP1 expression via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Targeting genes/proteins mutually governed by PTH and 1,25D may be a viable approach for designing new therapies for preserving mineralized tissue health.
PMID: 26276370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Inflammation and skeletal metastasis.
Bonekey Rep. 2015;4:706
Authors: Roca H, McCauley LK
On the road to metastasis a cancer cell has to overcome two major obstacles: the physical escape from the primary tumor to a distant tissue and the adaptation to the new microenvironment via colonization and the formation of a secondary tumor. Accumulated scientific findings support the hypothesis that inflammation is a critical component of the tumor microenvironment and develops as a result of tumor-induced recruitment of inflammatory cells and their reciprocal interaction with other cells from the tumor network. These interactions modulate immune responses to suppress antitumor immunity and activate feedback amplification signaling loops that link nearly all the cells in the cancer inflammatory milieu. The coordinated regulation of cytokines/chemokines, receptors and other inflammatory mediators enables the different steps of the metastatic cascade. As a target organ for colonization, the bone is rich in inflammatory mediators that are critical for successful cancer growth. In this review, we focus on the inflammatory cells, molecules and mechanisms that facilitate the expansion of cancer cells from the primary tumor to their new 'home' in the skeleton.
PMID: 26131358 [PubMed]
Diagnosis and management of osteonecrosis of the jaw: a systematic review and international consensus.
J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Jan;30(1):3-23
Authors: Khan AA, Morrison A, Hanley DA, Felsenberg D, McCauley LK, O'Ryan F, Reid IR, Ruggiero SL, Taguchi A, Tetradis S, Watts NB, Brandi ML, Peters E, Guise T, Eastell R, Cheung AM, Morin SN, Masri B, Cooper C, Morgan SL, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Langdahl BL, Al Dabagh R, Davison KS, Kendler DL, Sándor GK, Josse RG, Bhandari M, El Rabbany M, Pierroz DD, Sulimani R, Saunders DP, Brown JP, Compston J, International Task Force on Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
This work provides a systematic review of the literature from January 2003 to April 2014 pertaining to the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), and offers recommendations for its management based on multidisciplinary international consensus. ONJ is associated with oncology-dose parenteral antiresorptive therapy of bisphosphonates (BP) and denosumab (Dmab). The incidence of ONJ is greatest in the oncology patient population (1% to 15%), where high doses of these medications are used at frequent intervals. In the osteoporosis patient population, the incidence of ONJ is estimated at 0.001% to 0.01%, marginally higher than the incidence in the general population (<0.001%). New insights into the pathophysiology of ONJ include antiresorptive effects of BPs and Dmab, effects of BPs on gamma delta T-cells and on monocyte and macrophage function, as well as the role of local bacterial infection, inflammation, and necrosis. Advances in imaging include the use of cone beam computerized tomography assessing cortical and cancellous architecture with lower radiation exposure, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scanning, and positron emission tomography, although plain films often suffice. Other risk factors for ONJ include glucocorticoid use, maxillary or mandibular bone surgery, poor oral hygiene, chronic inflammation, diabetes mellitus, ill-fitting dentures, as well as other drugs, including antiangiogenic agents. Prevention strategies for ONJ include elimination or stabilization of oral disease prior to initiation of antiresorptive agents, as well as maintenance of good oral hygiene. In those patients at high risk for the development of ONJ, including cancer patients receiving high-dose BP or Dmab therapy, consideration should be given to withholding antiresorptive therapy following extensive oral surgery until the surgical site heals with mature mucosal coverage. Management of ONJ is based on the stage of the disease, size of the lesions, and the presence of contributing drug therapy and comorbidity. Conservative therapy includes topical antibiotic oral rinses and systemic antibiotic therapy. Localized surgical debridement is indicated in advanced nonresponsive disease and has been successful. Early data have suggested enhanced osseous wound healing with teriparatide in those without contraindications for its use. Experimental therapy includes bone marrow stem cell intralesional transplantation, low-level laser therapy, local platelet-derived growth factor application, hyperbaric oxygen, and tissue grafting.
PMID: 25414052 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Endothelial interleukin-6 defines the tumorigenic potential of primary human cancer stem cells.
Stem Cells. 2014 Nov;32(11):2845-57
Authors: Krishnamurthy S, Warner KA, Dong Z, Imai A, Nör C, Ward BB, Helman JI, Taichman RS, Bellile EL, McCauley LK, Polverini PJ, Prince ME, Wicha MS, Nör JE
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) contain a small subpopulation of stem cells endowed with unique capacity to generate tumors. These cancer stem cells (CSC) are localized in perivascular niches and rely on crosstalk with endothelial cells for survival and self-renewal, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here, we report that stromal interleukin (IL)-6 defines the tumorigenic capacity of CSC sorted from primary human HNSCC and transplanted into mice. In search for the cellular source of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), we observed a direct correlation between IL-6 levels in tumor-associated endothelial cells and the tumorigenicity of CSC. In vitro, endothelial cell-IL-6 enhanced orosphere formation, p-STAT3 activation, survival, and self-renewal of human CSC. Notably, a humanized anti-IL-6R antibody (tocilizumab) inhibited primary human CSC-mediated tumor initiation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that endothelial cell-secreted IL-6 defines the tumorigenic potential of CSC, and suggest that HNSCC patients might benefit from therapeutic inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R signaling.
PMID: 25078284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Polarization of prostate cancer-associated macrophages is induced by milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8)-mediated efferocytosis.
J Biol Chem. 2014 Aug 29;289(35):24560-72
Authors: Soki FN, Koh AJ, Jones JD, Kim YW, Dai J, Keller ET, Pienta KJ, Atabai K, Roca H, McCauley LK
Tumor cells secrete factors that modulate macrophage activation and polarization into M2 type tumor-associated macrophages, which promote tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. The mechanisms that mediate this polarization are not clear. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that participate in the clearance of apoptotic cells, a process known as efferocytosis. Milk fat globule- EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a bridge protein that facilitates efferocytosis and is associated with suppression of proinflammatory responses. This study investigated the hypothesis that MFG-E8-mediated efferocytosis promotes M2 polarization. Tissue and serum exosomes from prostate cancer patients presented higher levels of MFG-E8 compared with controls, a novel finding in human prostate cancer. Coculture of macrophages with apoptotic cancer cells increased efferocytosis, elevated MFG-E8 protein expression levels, and induced macrophage polarization into an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Administration of antibody against MFG-E8 significantly attenuated the increase in M2 polarization. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation using the inhibitor Stattic decreased efferocytosis and M2 macrophage polarization in vitro, with a correlating increase in SOCS3 protein expression. Moreover, MFG-E8 knockdown tumor cells cultured with wild-type or MFG-E8-deficient macrophages resulted in increased SOCS3 expression with decreased STAT3 activation. This suggests that SOCS3 and phospho-STAT3 act in an inversely dependent manner when stimulated by MFG-E8 and efferocytosis. These results uncover a unique role of efferocytosis via MFG-E8 as a mechanism for macrophage polarization into tumor-promoting M2 cells.
PMID: 25006249 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cutting edge: Parathyroid hormone facilitates macrophage efferocytosis in bone marrow via proresolving mediators resolvin D1 and resolvin D2.
J Immunol. 2014 Jul 1;193(1):26-9
Authors: McCauley LK, Dalli J, Koh AJ, Chiang N, Serhan CN
Bone marrow macrophages stimulate skeletal wound repair and osteoblastic bone formation by poorly defined mechanisms. Specialized proresolving mediators of inflammation drive macrophage efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) and resolution, but little is known regarding this process in the bone marrow. In this study, metabololipidomic profiling via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry revealed higher levels of specialized proresolving mediators in the bone marrow relative to the spleen. The endocrine and bone anabolic agent parathyroid hormone increased specialized proresolving mediator levels, including resolvins (Rvs), in bone marrow. Human and murine primary macrophages efferocytosed apoptotic osteoblasts in vitro, and RvD1 and RvD2 (10 pM-10 nM) enhanced this process. These findings support a unique profile of specialized lipid mediators in bone marrow that contribute to a feedback system for resolution of inflammation and maintenance of skeletal homeostasis.
PMID: 24890726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Osteal macrophages support physiologic skeletal remodeling and anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone in bone.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 28;111(4):1545-50
Authors: Cho SW, Soki FN, Koh AJ, Eber MR, Entezami P, Park SI, van Rooijen N, McCauley LK
Cellular subpopulations in the bone marrow play distinct and unexplored functions in skeletal homeostasis. This study delineated a unique role of osteal macrophages in bone and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent bone anabolism using murine models of targeted myeloid-lineage cell ablation. Depletion of c-fms(+) myeloid lineage cells [via administration of AP20187 in the macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MAFIA) mouse model] reduced cortical and trabecular bone mass and attenuated PTH-induced trabecular bone anabolism, supporting the positive function of macrophages in bone homeostasis. Interestingly, using a clodronate liposome model with targeted depletion of mature phagocytic macrophages an opposite effect was found with increased trabecular bone mass and increased PTH-induced anabolism. Apoptotic cells were more numerous in MAFIA versus clodronate-treated mice and flow cytometric analyses of myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow showed that MAFIA mice had reduced CD68(+) cells, whereas clodronate liposome-treated mice had increased CD68(+) and CD163(+) cells. Clodronate liposomes increased efferocytosis (clearance of apoptotic cells) and gene expression associated with alternatively activated M2 macrophages as well as expression of genes associated with bone formation including Wnt3a, Wnt10b, and Tgfb1. Taken together, depletion of early lineage macrophages resulted in osteopenia with blunted effects of PTH anabolic actions, whereas depletion of differentiated macrophages promoted apoptotic cell clearance and transformed the bone marrow to an osteogenic environment with enhanced PTH anabolism. These data highlight a unique function for osteal macrophages in skeletal homeostasis.
PMID: 24406853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Early effects of parathyroid hormone on bisphosphonate/steroid-associated compromised osseous wound healing.
Osteoporos Int. 2014 Mar;25(3):1141-50
Authors: Kuroshima S, Entezami P, McCauley LK, Yamashita J
SUMMARY: Administration of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) promoted healing of tibial osseous defects and tooth extraction wounds and prevented the development of necrotic lesions in rats on a combined bisphosphonate and steroid regimen.
INTRODUCTION: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has emerged in association with antiresorptive therapies. The pathophysiology of ONJ is unknown and no established cure currently exists. Our objective was to determine the effect of intermittent PTH administration on early osseous healing in the jaw and long bones of rats receiving bisphosphonate and steroid treatment.
METHODS: Ovariectomized rats received the combination therapy of alendronate and dexamethasone (ALN/DEX) for 12 weeks. Osseous wounds were created in the jaw and tibia. PTH was administered intermittently and healing at 2 weeks post-op was compared between the jaw and tibia by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analyses.
RESULTS: ALN/DEX treatment was associated with necrotic open wounds in the jaw but had no negative effects on healing and promoted bone fill in tibial defects. PTH therapy prevented the development of necrotic lesions in the jaw and promoted healing of the tibial defects. PTH therapy was associated with the promotion of osteocyte survival in osseous wounds both in the jaw and tibia.
CONCLUSIONS: Wound healing was impaired in the jaw in rats on a combined bisphosphonate and steroid regimen, and PTH therapy rescued necrotic lesions. These findings suggest that PTH therapy could be utilized to prevent ONJ from occurring in patients on combination antiresorptive and steroid therapy.
PMID: 24301537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Activation of the Wnt pathway through AR79, a GSK3β inhibitor, promotes prostate cancer growth in soft tissue and bone.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013 Dec;11(12):1597-610
Authors: Jiang Y, Dai J, Zhang H, Sottnik JL, Keller JM, Escott KJ, Sanganee HJ, Yao Z, McCauley LK, Keller ET
UNLABELLED: Due to its bone anabolic activity, methods to increase Wnt activity, such as inhibitors of dickkopf-1 and sclerostin, are being clinically explored. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β) inhibits Wnt signaling by inducing β-catenin degradation, and a GSK3β inhibitor, AR79, is being evaluated as an osteoanabolic agent. However, Wnt activation has the potential to promote tumor growth; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if AR79 has an impact on the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer tumors were established in subcutaneous and bone sites of mice followed by AR79 administration, and tumor growth, β-catenin activation, proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed. Additionally, prostate cancer and osteoblast cell lines were treated with AR79, and β-catenin status, proliferation (with β-catenin knockdown in some cases), and proportion of ALDH(+)CD133(+) stem-like cells were determined. AR79 promoted prostate cancer tumor growth, decreased phospho-β-catenin, increased total and nuclear β-catenin, and increased tumor-induced bone remodeling. Additionally, AR79 treatment decreased caspase-3 and increased Ki67 expression in tumors and increased bone formation in normal mouse tibiae. Similarly, AR79 inhibited β-catenin phosphorylation, increased nuclear β-catenin accumulation in prostate cancer and osteoblast cell lines, and increased proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro through β-catenin. Furthermore, AR79 increased the ALDH(+)CD133(+) cancer stem cell-like proportion of the prostate cancer cell lines. In conclusion, AR79, while being bone anabolic, promotes prostate cancer cell growth through Wnt pathway activation.
IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that clinical application of pharmaceuticals that promote Wnt pathway activation should be used with caution as they may enhance tumor growth.
PMID: 24088787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Parathyroid hormone-related protein drives a CD11b+Gr1+ cell-mediated positive feedback loop to support prostate cancer growth.
Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;73(22):6574-83
Authors: Park SI, Lee C, Sadler WD, Koh AJ, Jones J, Seo JW, Soki FN, Cho SW, Daignault SD, McCauley LK
In the tumor microenvironment, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) bone marrow-derived cells are a predominant source of protumorigenic factors such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), but how distal tumors regulate these cells in the bone marrow is unclear. Here we addressed the hypothesis that the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) potentiates CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in the bone marrow of prostate tumor hosts. In two xenograft models of prostate cancer, levels of tumor-derived PTHrP correlated with CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cell recruitment and microvessel density in the tumor tissue, with evidence for mediation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cell-derived MMP-9 but not tumor-derived VEGF-A. CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells isolated from mice with PTHrP-overexpressing tumors exhibited relatively increased proangiogenic potential, suggesting that prostate tumor-derived PTHrP potentiates this activity of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Administration of neutralizing PTHrP monoclonal antibody reduced CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells and MMP-9 in the tumors. Mechanistic investigations in vivo revealed that PTHrP elevated Y418 phosphorylation levels in Src family kinases in CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells via osteoblast-derived interleukin-6 and VEGF-A, thereby upregulating MMP-9. Taken together, our results showed that prostate cancer-derived PTHrP acts in the bone marrow to potentiate CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells, which are recruited to tumor tissue where they contribute to tumor angiogenesis and growth.
PMID: 24072746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Parathyroid hormone-related protein inhibits DKK1 expression through c-Jun-mediated inhibition of β-catenin activation of the DKK1 promoter in prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2014 May 8;33(19):2464-77
Authors: Zhang H, Yu C, Dai J, Keller JM, Hua A, Sottnik JL, Shelley G, Hall CL, Park SI, Yao Z, Zhang J, McCauley LK, Keller ET
Prostate cancer (PCa)bone metastases are unique in that majority of them induce excessive mineralized bone matrix, through undefined mechanisms, as opposed to most other cancers that induce bone resorption. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is produced by PCa cells and intermittent PTHrP exposure has bone anabolic effects, suggesting that PTHrP could contribute to the excess bone mineralization. Wnts are bone-productive factors produced by PCa cells, and the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopfs-1 (DKK1) has been shown to promote PCa progression. These findings, in conjunction with the observation that PTHrP expression increases and DKK1 expression decreases as PCa progresses, led to the hypothesis that PTHrP could be a negative regulator of DKK1 expression in PCa cells and, hence, allow the osteoblastic activity of Wnts to be realized. To test this, we first demonstrated that PTHrP downregulated DKK1 mRNA and protein expression. We then found through multiple mutated DKK1 promoter assays that PTHrP, through c-Jun activation, downregulated the DKK1 promoter through a transcription factor (TCF) response element site. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and re-ChIP assays revealed that PTHrP mediated this effect through inducing c-Jun to bind to a transcriptional activator complex consisting of β-catenin, which binds the most proximal DKK1 promoter, the TCF response element. Together, these results demonstrate a novel signaling linkage between PTHrP and Wnt signaling pathways that results in downregulation of a Wnt inhibitor allowing for Wnt activity that could contribute the osteoblastic nature of PCa.
PMID: 23752183 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Intra-oral PTH administration promotes tooth extraction socket healing.
J Dent Res. 2013 Jun;92(6):553-9
Authors: Kuroshima S, Kovacic BL, Kozloff KM, McCauley LK, Yamashita J
Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH.
PMID: 23611925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Signaling between transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and transcription factor SNAI2 represses expression of microRNA miR-203 to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis.
J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12;288(15):10241-53
Authors: Ding X, Park SI, McCauley LK, Wang CY
TGF-β promotes tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Understanding the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms by which TGF-β induces EMT may facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies for metastasis. Here, we report that TGF-β induced SNAI2 to promote EMT by repressing miR-203. Although miR-203 targeted SNAI2, SNAI2 induced by TGF-β could directly bind to the miR-203 promoter to inhibit its transcription. SNAI2 and miR-203 formed a double negative feedback loop to inhibit each other's expression, thereby controlling EMT. Moreover, we found that miR-203 was significantly down-regulated in highly metastatic breast cancer cells. The restoration of miR-203 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells inhibited tumor cell invasion in vitro and lung metastatic colonization in vivo by repressing SNAI2. Taken together, our results suggest that the SNAI2 and miR-203 regulatory loop plays important roles in EMT and tumor metastasis.
PMID: 23447531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The soluble interleukin-6 receptor is a mediator of hematopoietic and skeletal actions of parathyroid hormone.
J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 8;288(10):6814-25
Authors: Cho SW, Pirih FQ, Koh AJ, Michalski M, Eber MR, Ritchie K, Sinder B, Oh S, Al-Dujaili SA, Lee J, Kozloff K, Danciu T, Wronski TJ, McCauley LK
Both PTH and IL-6 signaling play pivotal roles in hematopoiesis and skeletal biology, but their interdependence is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) on hematopoietic and skeletal actions of PTH. In the bone microenvironment, PTH stimulated sIL-6R protein levels in primary osteoblast cultures in vitro and bone marrow in vivo in both IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. PTH-mediated hematopoietic cell expansion was attenuated in IL-6(-/-) compared with IL-6(+/+) bone marrow, whereas sIL-6R treatment amplified PTH actions in IL-6(-/-) earlier than IL-6(+/+) marrow cultures. Blocking sIL-6R signaling with sgp130 (soluble glycoprotein 130 receptor) inhibited PTH-dependent hematopoietic cell expansion in IL-6(-/-) marrow. In the skeletal system, although intermittent PTH administration to IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice resulted in similar anabolic actions, blocking sIL-6R significantly attenuated PTH anabolic actions. sIL-6R showed no direct effects on osteoblast proliferation or differentiation in vitro; however, it up-regulated myeloid cell expansion and production of the mesenchymal stem cell recruiting agent, TGF-β1 in the bone marrow microenvironment. Collectively, sIL-6R demonstrated orphan function and mediated PTH anabolic actions in bone in association with support of myeloid lineage cells in the hematopoietic system.
PMID: 23297399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Hen-Li Chen – Associate Professor, National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Oral Biology, Taipei, Taiwan
Burak Demiralp – Associate Professor, Dept. of Periodontology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Tolga Tozum – Associate Professor, Dept. of Periodontology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
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Flavia Pirih – Assistant Professor, Director of the Pre-doctoral Program in the Section of Periodontics, Associated Clinical Specialties, School of Dentistry, UCLA
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Sun Wook Cho – Assistant professor, Department of Endocrinology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
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Dr. Jill Bashutski - Clinical Assistant Professor, POM, U of M, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI
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Dr. Jia Chang - Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontology, University of Florida College of Dentistry
Rahime Nohutcu – Faculty of Dentistry, Dept. of Periodontology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Janice Berry – Retired, University of Michigan Office of Research